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Blog Weight Loss Weight Management Does Progesterone Cause Weight Gain? Here’s What You Need To Know About Hormonal Weight Gain

Does Progesterone Cause Weight Gain? Here’s What You Need To Know About Hormonal Weight Gain

symptoms of high progesterone

Everyone has experienced weight gain at some point in their life. It’s just one of those things that happen to everyone.  But, what about when you’re not overeating or exercising less?  What could be the cause then?  Some people may find themselves wondering if it is possible for progesterone levels to affect your weight. This article will discuss the relationship between progesterone and weight gain as well as provide information on how best to combat hormonal-related weight fluctuations. Does progesterone cause weight gain? Read on to find out!

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What Is Progesterone?

Progesterone is an endogenous hormone that’s responsible for the regulation of your menstrual cycle and reproduction.  However, it also has other important functions.  It helps to: balance out estrogen (female sex hormone); maintain uterine lining; and prevent the over-secretion of prolactin (hormone released by pituitary) (18).  

Women produce progesterone in their ovaries and adrenal glands during their reproductive years, but after menopause they rely on their adrenal glands to produce it. The ability of your body to produce this hormone declines with age, which is one reason why older women often experience more adverse symptoms when trying to conceive or going through menopause (20).   

What Is The Relationship Between Hormones And Weight?

A healthy balance  between all of the hormones released into your body is the key to maintaining a healthy weight.  The two main female reproductive hormones – estrogen and progesterone – have a symbiotic relationship that directly impacts your weight.  

Your estrogen levels increase as you progress through puberty, during pregnancy and around menstrual cycles. While this hormone can be very beneficial for women, it also has some negative effects on weight gain when not regulated properly.  

Studies indicate that high estrogen levels can lead to significant fat accumulation in women by stimulating appetite and slowing down metabolism. However, this isn’t to say that all estrogen is bad. In small amounts, it actually helps maintain a woman’s lean mass.  

On the other hand, progesterone has the opposite effect.  It helps to combat estrogen-related weight gain by stimulating your body’s ability to burn fat and act as a natural diuretic (a substance that promotes the production of urine) (15).

Read More: Hormones And Weight Gain After 40: How To Use Diet And Exercise To Overcome This

does progesterone cause weight gain
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When You Have Healthy Progesterone Levels

Progesterone doesn’t cause weight gain. In fact, when you have healthy levels of this hormone, it can help you lose weight in various ways:

Triggers Fat Metabolism

The main site of progesterone’s impact on metabolism is in the fat tissue. Along with estrogen and cortisol, progesterone stimulates the uptake of glucose by fat cells; however, progesterone also has a more direct metabolic effect (8).

It acts as both an anti-inflammatory and an antioxidant within fatty tissues: it helps to prevent overstimulation of immune system components called “cytokines” by reaching into adipose tissues and stopping cytokine molecules from doing their damage. Furthermore, it prevents this damage from propagating further inflammation by acting as an electron donor that neutralizes free radicals released during inflammatory processes (4). 

Acts As A Natural Diuretic

High levels of progesterone can cause diuresis, which is the body’s natural loss of fluids through urination. Since you’re losing water weight in addition to fat, it speeds up your metabolism significantly over time (1).  

Prevents Estrogen Dominance

Estrogen dominance is when your body’s estrogen levels are too high. High estrogen levels increase insulin resistance in women by increasing the number of insulin receptors at a cellular level and changing the way estrogen interacts with these receptors. Insulin resistance leads to fat accumulation and weight gain. Progesterone balances out estrogen by binding to the same receptor sites that estrogen does, displacing it and stopping its effects (7).

does progesterone cause weight gain
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How Does Progesterone Cause Weight Gain?

When your progesterone levels are too high or too low, you can gain weight. Here are some of the ways an imbalance in this hormone results in weight gain:

High Progesterone Can Cause HyperInsulinemia

One of progesterone’s main jobs is to trigger insulin secretion in the pancreas so that it can reduce blood glucose levels. When your progesterone levels are too high, this causes frequent and unpredictable insulin release, which drives up your blood sugar levels constantly. This effect is known as hyperinsulinemia – too much insulin (11).

This constant overabundance of insulin stimulates fat storage by increasing lipogenesis, or “fat production.” It also results in increased hunger because constantly elevated insulin blocks a hormone called leptin from being released. Leptin tells your body when you’re full so you don’t eat more than necessary.  When this signal is blocked, it triggers cravings for high-carbohydrate foods. This phenomenon is known as leptin resistance, which is the result of elevated insulin levels (16).

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See also  Average Weight Gain During Period: What Is The Safe Haven?

High Progesterone Can Stimulate Appetite

When progesterone levels are too high and estrogen levels are low, it can cause disruptions in your appetite hormones, leading to weight gain. This situation causes a woman’s cortisol and ghrelin (the “hunger hormone”) levels to rise excessively while her PYY 3-36 (a hormone that suppresses appetite) levels drop. The combination of these imbalances creates intense food cravings and causes overeating even when your body doesn’t need the excess calories (19). 

Low Progesterone Can Cause Insulin Resistance

Insulin resistance is a condition where cells reject the presence of insulin – the hormone that processes sugar in the bloodstream. When cells become resistant to insulin, blood glucose levels remain elevated and excess fat is stored instead of burned. Progesterone helps counteract insulin resistance by binding to estrogen receptors that block insulin activation, and by suppressing inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) within fat tissues (2).

Low Progesterone Can Prevent Normal Functioning Of Thyroid Hormones

If progesterone levels are too low, it can prevent proper function of thyroid hormones. These two hormones work together: your thyroid provides the body with the raw materials for progesterone production while progesterone triggers specific proteins within thyroid cells that allow them to burn through these materials at a more efficient rate. This relationship serves as a critical gatekeeper for your metabolic rate. If progesterone levels are too low, thyroid function will slow down and your metabolism is likely to follow suit (9).

does progesterone cause weight gain
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How Can You Balance Hormones Naturally To Lose Weight?

Restoration, protection, and regeneration are the three primary principles of hormonal health. Our hormones tell us which of these systems need attention, and then we give it to them. The more that you understand your body on this level, the better equipped you’ll be to achieve any goal.

Weight loss can be very challenging for some people. Some women have a difficult time dropping extra pounds no matter what they do or how hard they try. We’ve determined that one of progesterone’s most interesting roles is ensuring that our bodies are primed to lose weight.

Here are several steps you can take to naturally balance progesterone levels and get rid of stubborn fat for good: 

Avoid SugarAnd Refined Carbs

If you want to boost progesterone levels, eliminating sugar is one of the most important things you can do. Sugar intake drastically affects estrogen and progesterone production. It also encourages fat storage, thanks to its ability to increase insulin levels, which prevents fat from being used as energy on a cellular level (13).

Cutting out sugar doesn’t mean that you have to cut out fruit or sweet vegetables like carrots or beets—just ditch the processed sugars. Some of my favorite alternatives are stevia, coconut nectar, pure maple syrup, raw honey, and blackstrap molasses. If you need something for your morning coffee or afternoon tea, try any of those options instead of artificial sweeteners. 

Avoid Overeating Or Undereating

When it comes to progesterone production, the same principle applies as with estrogen—too much or too little can cause problems. Eating too few calories causes your body to enter starvation mode, which initiates the breakdown of muscle tissue for energy. This not only interrupts hormonal balance but also slows down your metabolism. On the other hand, if you eat more food than you need, fat storage increases because insulin levels will be higher. 

Another major factor that determines whether or not weight loss will occur is thyroid function. The thyroid gland creates hormones that are integral for getting rid of extra pounds. Thyroid hormone inhibits fat accumulation and promotes fat burning. If your thyroid is sluggish, that’s going to create a lot of difficulty in getting rid of fat and maintaining optimal weight (12).

progesterone side effects
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Up Your Protein Consumption

Protein is one of the building blocks for hormone production, so eat plenty of it. Aim for 0.55 to 0.8 grams per pound of lean body mass every day. This will help you maintain healthy levels of estrogen, progesterone, thyroid hormones, and growth hormone—all important for proper metabolic function. Eating protein also keeps blood sugar stable because it provides an ongoing release of energy instead of requiring a sudden spike or drop (6).

Read More: Best Foods For Hormone Balance: 9 Natural Solutions For Mental, Physical, And Emotional Health

Eat More Fatty Fish

Omega-3 fatty acids in fish oil help to enhance metabolism and also support a healthy thyroid gland. DHA (docosahexaenoic acid) is another component of fish oil that enables our cells to be receptive to insulin, which increases the efficiency of glucose transport—this makes it easier for your body to convert carbs into energy, rather than storing them as excess fat (17). 

Drink Green Tea

Green tea has been shown to increase thermogenesis (fat burning) by up to 40 percent. A compound called epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), which is locked inside the leaves of green tea, speeds up your metabolism while simultaneously inhibiting new fat cell production. EGCG also activates uncoupling proteins, which causes stored body fat to be burned as energy instead of being stored (5). 

Eat Healthy Fats

Fats from organic, grass-fed animals and free-range chickens or wild game are vital for hormone production and proper metabolic function. Eating a diet low in healthy fats not only creates deficiency but also slows down your metabolism. Consuming animal fats supports the release of fat from fat cells so they can be used as energy—plus it helps reduce sugar cravings (21).  

Follow A Low-Carb Eating Plan

In order to balance hormones naturally, eating fewer carbs is key. When you eat a high-carb diet, you’re constantly releasing insulin in response to blood sugar spikes. This causes your body to store more fat and makes it very difficult for your body to release stored fat from the cells for energy. It also inhibits thyroid function because when you have too much insulin in your bloodstream, your T3 hormone doesn’t get converted into the active form of thyroid hormone (T3) (14).

hormonal weight gain
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Limit Alcohol And Caffeine

Alcohol is especially problematic when consumed on an empty stomach because it can inhibit HCL production—the acid needed for proper digestion. When this happens, food sits in the stomach longer and disturbs sleep patterns because it digests slower, which means you will most likely feel hungry again shortly after eating. Alcohol inhibits fat-burning because it interferes with estrogen metabolism and depletes essential nutrients like magnesium, zinc, B vitamins, vitamin A, and selenium (3).

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See also  Hormones And Weight Gain: 7 Hormones That Control Your Weight And How To Balance Them

Exercise More

If you want to increase your ability to burn fat—especially around the abdominal area, where it can be especially stubborn—then exercise is a must. Strength training (like weight lifting) builds lean muscle tissue and increases basal metabolic rate (BMR), which means more calories burned even when not exercising.

It also helps offset postmenopausal weight gain by burning excess cortisol and insulin — both of which contribute to extra belly fat. Exercise also enhances muscle mass as we age, so our bodies burn more glucose as energy throughout the day rather  than storing it as excess fat.

estrogen vs progesterone
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Relieve Stress

Stress, cortisol, and insulin all work together to make you gain weight. When your body is under stress, you release cortisol; this sets off a cascade of events that causes insulin to spike—which tells your body to store fat rather than burn it (10). So the more stressed out you are (or the less able you are to manage it), the more insulin resistant your cells become because they don’t want any glucose flowing through them; they only want carbs in their ideal form (complex carbohydrates like vegetables).

Exercise helps with stress relief by releasing endorphins into the bloodstream, which lift your moods and reduce pain-inducing inflammation throughout the body. Other ways to relieve stress  include meditation, yoga, and simply taking some time out of your day to do something that makes you happy.

The Bottom Line

Since progesterone promotes fat metabolism and inhibits fat storage, a woman’s body is programmed to burn off excess weight when levels are balanced. When you have healthy levels of progesterone, your natural tendency is to maintain a healthy weight. However, an imbalance of this essential hormone could be the root cause of your weight loss resistance and figure struggles.

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DISCLAIMER:

This article is intended for general informational purposes only and does not address individual circumstances. It is not a substitute for professional advice or help and should not be relied on to make decisions of any kind. Any action you take upon the information presented in this article is strictly at your own risk and responsibility!

SOURCES:

  1. [Studies of the sodium-diuretic effect of progesterone] (1962, pubmed.gov)
  2. A cross-sectional study on the associations of insulin resistance with sex hormone, abnormal lipid metabolism in T2DM and IGT patients (2017, nih.gov)
  3. Alcohol Consumption and Obesity: An Update (2015, nih.gov)
  4. Anti-inflammatory Effects of Progesterone in Lipopolysaccharide Stimulated BV-2 Microglia (2014, nih.gov)
  5. Beneficial effects of green tea: A literature review (2010, nih.gov)
  6. Effect of a high-protein diet vs standard-protein diet on weight loss biomarkers of metabolic syndrome: a randomized controlled trial (2017, nih.gov)
  7. Estrogen Dominance and Progesterone Deficiency (2021, thehollandclinic.com)
  8. Hormones That Take Off The Pounds (2021, imcwc.com)
  9. HOW ESTROGEN AND PROGESTERONE IMPACT YOUR THYROID HORMONES (n.d., bioadaptivemedicine.com)
  10. How Too Much Stress Can Cause Weight Gain (And What To Do About It) (2020, orlandohealth.com)
  11. Hyperinsulinemia (2019, diabetes.co.uk)
  12. Hypothyroidism (2020, clevelandclinic.org)
  13. Increased consumption of refined carbohydrates and the epidemic of type 2 diabetes in the United States: an Ecological Assessment (2004, oup.com)
  14. Low Carb, High Carb, Bad Carb: How Much is Best? (2018, webmd.com)
  15. Metabolic effects of progesterone (1982, nih.gov)
  16. Obesity and Leptin Resistance: Distinguishing Cause from Effect (2010, nih.gov)
  17. Oily Fish and Omega-3s Across The Life Stages: A Focus on Intakes And Future Directions (2019, nih.gov)
  18. Physiology, Progesterone (2021, nih.gov)
  19. Sex hormones, appetite and eating behavior in women (2012, pubmed.gov)
  20. The physiology of endocrine systems with ageing (2018, nih.gov)
  21. The truth about fats: the good, the bad and the in between (2019, harvard.edu)
ZindzyGracia

Zindzy is a freelance writer who specializes in creating web content in the health & wellness niche. The articles she writes focus on providing factual information – but never at the expense of providing an entertaining read.
Her interest in health & wellness was sparked by her motherhood journey. She realized just how much damage misinformation could cause, especially when it is targeted at new moms who are keen on postpartum weight loss.
So for years, she has worked hard to demystify the seemingly complex concepts of health & wellness. Eventually, she made one startling discovery that she wishes to share with all – there is no short cut. Consistency and hard work are the keys to a healthy mind and body.
But, writing is not all she does. Being a mother to an energetic toddler means her free time is spent exploring the outdoors, arms laden with cotton candy and toys. Through the daily intrigues of work and play, she continues to discover and share more ways to keep fit and stay healthy!

J. Paul

Jovial is from Dubai, and is a Head EMS Instructor/Fitness Manager/Nutrition Consultant for REMS Fitness. He is certified by the Gold’s Gym Fitness Institute and Registered as a Gym Instructor.
Jovial specialises in HIIT training, Rehabilitation/injury recovery, Strength and Conditioning, Kickboxing, Body Weight Training and Weight Training, and practices each discipline himself. His approach is to focus on improving his clients’ lifestyle by motivating them and setting an example.

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